Temperament And Food

Temperament,Body,Food And Health

by Izat Khan

What is temperament?

Google says,” Temperament is, in psychology, an aspect of personality concerned with emotional dispositions and reactions and their speed and intensity; the term is often used to refer to the prevailing mood or mood pattern of a person.”

What are four examples of temperament?

Google says, The four temperaments describe individuals as sanguine (optimistic, social, and associated with the element of air), melancholic (analytical, quiet, earth), choleric (short-tempered, irritable, fire), and phlegmatic (relaxed, peaceful, water).”

Experts define, “When food or drink is eaten, it has a hot or cold effect on the body. If the food and drink have a hot temperament, it gives warmth to the body, and if they have a cold temperament, it gives it coldness. Therefore, it influences before it becomes a part of the body. The four types of temperament are melancholic, choleric, sanguine, and phlegmatic. Most people are said to contain a mix of these personality types, as each person also has a mix of physical components within the body.”.

“The eaten food reaches a stage where it gets changed and takes on the appearance of a part of the body’s organ. Since each part of the body has its on temperament, when the food becomes an organ, in the beginning,  some of it is not compatible with that organ, and it needs time to harmonize with that part of the body’s temperament.

For example, lettuce and garlic: part of the substance of lettuce turns into blood in the body. Since the temperament of the lettuce is cold, the blood that came from it, although it is good blood, is colder than the coldness necessary for human temperament.”

My motto is “Temperament.”

This is my motto, and I want every human being, especially nutritionists and doctors, to have this motto: “Food and health are not if you don’t know the temperament of the body and foods both.” Getting sick despite eating food and not being healthy despite getting treatment is the biggest proof that you don’t know your body and the mood of your food.Sadly, this is a far-fetched thing for the common man; even nutritionists and doctors seem to be unaware of the great fact that a person cannot be healthy if he does not know the mood of his body or food.

For many centuries, the human body has been treated with knowledge of temperament. This treatment is still being done today, but now on a small scale and in a few notable countries.  This natural remedy has been very successful for centuries, particularly in Greece, the Middle East, and the subcontinent. Even today, millions of people believe in this temperamental truth as a revelation.

At first, myself and my friends were mesmerized by modern science and medical advancements and considered this natural treatment unreliable and unscientific. But then our lack of knowledge came out as ignorance.After a few years, my major health problems came to the fore, and I saw the health problems and treatments of some friends and acquaintances and the results that came out. So, it did not take long to reach the fact that modern medicine could not fully cure the human body despite its many useful medicines and treatment methods.

When I got tired of the treatment of the modern medical doctor and turned to the ancient method of treatment, God was my witness. I did not fully explain this fact because of my lack of knowledge.I had a stomach problem, which was causing many other diseases. I was treated with modern medicine for 20 years, but my disease did not go away. When I started the ancient natural treatment, God was my witness, and my disease was miraculously cured in a few days. It is very cheap, natural, and, in many cases, much better than modern treatment.

Second, there are no side effects from this treatment. If modern medicine treats the human body with the knowledge of temperament, then a revolution can be made in human health. This is also the fact that many diseases whose treatment was not satisfactory in the ancient method of treatment are present in modern medicine. Similarly, even today, the cause of some diseases is not satisfactory or long-lasting in modern medicine, but the treatment of these diseases is present in ancient medicine. Like many gastrointestinal diseases and sexual problems.

My friends and I, and for further research, when we met hundreds of people who were using mood therapy, it didn’t take long for us to conclude that modern medicine’s right eye was much better, but his left eye was quite weak. The left eye of the same ancient medicine is correct, but the right eye is quite weak. I wish these two weak eyes would start working together; then there could be a flood of light in the human body.Ancient treatment is just like today’s man returning to organic food. It won’t be long before man returns to the same organic treatment.

I would like to list here the articles of expert doctors, which will be very helpful for you in understanding human temperament and its treatment.

Doctor Writes About Temperament

The Pharma Innovation Journal 2019
Dr. Md. Irshad Hussain
PG Scholar, Deoband Unani
Medical College Hospital and
Research Center Deoband,
Uttar Pradesh, India
Dr. Akhlaque Hussain
Professor, Deoband Unani
Medical College Hospital and
Concept of temperament in the Unani system of medicine:
A review
Dr. Md. Irshad Hussain and Dr. Akhlaque Hussain
The Mizaj (temperament) is a notion (concept) and a way by which physicians evaluate the deviation of
the body or any of its organs from normal homeostasis in comparison to the patient’s population, race,
and species. It is merely the appearance that Unani physicians use to tell whether the whole body or one
of its organs has the right temperature and has the right amount of moisture. There is no absolute
temperament; that is, there is not one universal temperament to which we compare the health of an

Moreover, there is not one temperament that is the best or optimum for all types of
geographical locations. In contemporary stipulations, these impending from Avicenna (Ibn-e-Sina)
correspond to the imperative roles of natural balance and environment in the adaptation of the individual
through homeostasis and the role of evolution in the adaptation of populations to preserve homeostasis.
The Mizaj of an individual is population-specific, based on the evolution of the population within a
particular geographic location. The normal population temperament, which is the upper and
lower limits of the normal range, is the narrowest of temperaments. The population temperament range is
a subtype within the larger range of temperaments and the latter is a sub-type with the human species
temperament range. Genders are at variance in their temperaments’ ranges. Also, organs of the body vary
according to variations.
Keywords: Mizaj, temperament, Unani system of medicine
The Unani system of medicine is a comprehensive medical system that meticulously deals with
with the states of health and disease. Its holistic approach considers individual in relation to his
environment and stresses on the health of the body, mind, and soul. The temperament of a person is given
great importance for identifying the most suitable diet and lifestyle for promoting the health of
a particular individual. On the basis of Mizaj, human beings have been categorized into four
qualitative types: Damvi (sanguinous), Safravi (bilious), Balghami (phlegmatic), and Saudavi
Every person and every organ of the body has a different Mizaj, which also differs from person to person.
person [15]
Mizaj (Temperament) forms the base of diagnosis and treatment in the Unani System of
Medicine. Evaluation and classification of various temperaments are based on the intermixture
of four akhlat (humours) in the blood in different proportions and thus blood plays an
important role in the constitution of Mizaj. Domination of humors, e.g., blood, phlegm, and bile
and black bile in the blood categorizes persons in sanguine, phlegmatic, choleric and
melancholic temperaments, respectively [20]
Damvi Mizaj (Sanguine temperament)
Persons of this temperament are characterized by well-formed and prominent joints, oval face,
more muscular tissues than fat; the hairs of the head are thick and luxuriant. They are pleasantly warm
to touch. Veins are mildly prominent, and the pulse is full and strong. They have a good appetite.
balanced and sound sleep, and good faculty of judgment. They get trouble with hot things and
feel comfortable with cold and dry things and in cold weather. Their digestive power is
wonderfully good and appetite-driven. An optimistic positive mental outlook, they are
persuasive extrovert, have good social skills. They have romantic nature and like to travel and play
games and distractions, confident, poised, graceful, and enthusiastic.
The Pharma Innovation Journal
Signs of the dominancy of Blood (Ghalba-e-Dam)
The signs of dominance of blood are very similar to those of
quantitative plethora. There is a feeling of heaviness in the body.
especially behind eyes and over the head and temples, Sweet
taste in the mouth even without cause. Stretching and
Yawing is frequent. Excessive tendency to drowsiness and
Sleep perception is poor, and the mind is dull. Fatigue is felt even
without exertion. The tongue is usually red. Boils in the body and
Ulcers of the tongue are common. There is bleeding from the
gums, nostrils, and anus because the blood vessels of these
parts are easily ruptured. The characteristic dreams of this
type of humoral predominance are seeing of red things,
flowing of blood and being immersed in blood.
The dominance of blood predisposes them to diseases like
Hummyat matbaqa, inflammations, Chronic diarrhea, Bloody
diarrhea, Epistaxis, hemoptysis, Diphtheria, Epilepsy, Gout,
Headache, Tonsillitis, Sarsame damvi, Sudae damvi, and Zaghtud
dam qawi, conjunctivitis, etc.
Safravi Mizaj (Choleric temperament)
This temperament is marked by a medium-sized, sharp
angular features, medium/lean built, yellowish complexion,
brilliant, penetrating eyes, prominent veins, and a hairy body.
Hairs are black, abundant, thick, and curly. The pulse is rapid and
strong. They feel comforted with cold things and get trouble
with hot things. The most suitable season for them is winter. They
have good digestion, sharp and quick appetite and sleep
light. They are energetic, bold, daring, and have brilliant
intellect, but they are impatient, irritable, and short-tempered.
Often, they turned into fearless and rebellious leaders. They
have a strong inclination to indulge in sexual pleasure. They are
indefatigable in their enterprises and most persistent, zealous,
passionate and revengeful [21, 23]
Signs of the dominancy of Bile (Ghalba-e-Safra)
Yellow colour of eyes and complexion, bitter taste in mouth,
rough and dry tongue, excessive thirst, rapid pulse, lack of
appetite, nausea and bilious vomiting of green or yellow
colour, irritative diarrohea, frequent attacks of tingling in the
skin, feeling of burning and irritation as from hot bath or
Exposure to the sun is a sign of a predominance of bile.
Characteristic dreams of bile are seeing fire and flags of
yellow colour. The dominance of safra predisposes them to
diseases like Hummae ghib, T.B., Sudae safravi, Urticaria,
Hyperacidity, Erysipelas, Headache, Eyestrain, Hypertension,
Stress and Cardiovascular disorders [16, 23, 24]
Balghami Mizaj (Phlegmatic temperament)
Individuals of this temperament are flaccid, obese and soft
and flabby muscles; a white complexion; thin and soft hair.
Blood vessels are not prominent and pulse is slow and
infrequent. Their movements and activities are sluggish. They
feel comfortable with hot things and in hot weather. They have
round face with full cheeks, large moist eyes, and medium to
large frame, more fatty tissue than muscular tissue and bones
are well covered. They are calm and have sentimental and subjective
thinking, emotional, sensitive, tends to be religious,
The mind is foggy and slow. They are sexually frigid and do not
get angry easily. Their digestive organs are weak and slow.
Hence, they have less appetite and a poor thirst. They are
lethargic, dull, and take excess sleep. Their memory is poor
and power of perception is slow and feeble [24, 25]
Signs of the dominancy of phlegm (Ghalba-e-Balgham)
Flabbiness of body, cold and moist skin, excessive salivation
and viscid saliva, excessive sleepiness, mental dullness, soft
and slow pulse, weak digestion, pale urine and dreams about
Water, ice, and rain denote an excess of phlegm. Dominancy of
phlegm predisposes them to diseases like Common cold,
Ascites, edema, Hummae balghami, Pneumonia, Asthma,
Paralysis, Obesity, Sarsame balghami, etc. [26, 27]
Saudavi Mizaj (Melancholic temperament)
These people are characterized by being lean and thin-built.
prominent bones, small beady eyes and sunken hollow
cheeks, and coarse and rough skin. They have dark
complexion and profuse body hair. Hairs are black and thin
and have slow growth. Their digestion is weak, and their appetite is
irregular, sleep interrupted, and often suffers from insomnia.
Their touch is dry, leathery, and cool. They are sluggish
inclination towards sexual activity. They are analytical and detailed.
oriented; retentive faculty of mind is well developed [28]
Signs of the dominancy of Sauda (Ghalba-e-Sauda)
Dry and dark skin, anxiety, burning in epigastrium, false
appetite, thick and turbid urine, and dreams is usually full of
anxiety and are often of dark places and fearful objects.
Excess of sugar predisposes them to diseases like Leprosy,
Hummae ruba, Splenomegaly, Constipation, Anorexia,
Arthritis, Neuromuscular and Psychiatric disorders [16, 23, 29]
Itrat M et al. reported that People of one type of temperament
are prone to a particular group of diseases in different phases
of their life and under different climatic conditions due to
dominance of particular humor in particular temperaments.
This susceptibility can be checked by adopting the
temperament-specific regimens given by Unani physicians.
Hence, temperament-based preventive approach of Unani
medicine can offer a better way for promotion and
preservation of health with least cost [16]
Al-Mizaj (Temperament)
After the study of arkan or anasir (the elementary constituents),
of our body), the Tibbi physicians begin the study of mizaj. It
comes on the second number in Umurtabi’yah. It is also one of the
basic and fundamental concepts of Tibb [15]
Mizaj indicates the properties of an unsur (atom), a molecule,
a cell, a tissue, an organ, and the organism as a whole.
Each and every atom, molecule (murakkab), khilt (humour),
organelle, cell, organ and body as a whole are furnished with a
mizaj (equilibrium) upon which their properties, functions and
life depends[1]
Mizaj (temperament) is defined as the new state of a matter.
having quality different from that present in the elements or
compounds before coming into imtizaj (intermixture or
chemical combinations), which results from the action and
reaction among the contrary qualities and powers present in the
minute particles (atoms) of different elements (or molecules)
of different compounds), when they are combined together,
the resultant new quality, a uniform state or the state of
equilibrium emerging after the combination of more than one
elements is called mizaj (temperament) [16]
Hence, mizaj(temperament) indicates:
 The principles of chemical combination of different
elements (or compounds) to form a new compound,
having new properties altogether different from those of
the elements (or compounds) possessed by them
to coming into combination (imtizaj).
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The Pharma Innovation Journal
 Mizaj indicates the state of equilibrium in a compound
with respect to required number of atoms and molecules
of different elements, and their ratio to that particular
compound; and the state of homeostasis in a cell (rutubat
ustaqussiah), or in the entire body (rutubat tajawif) upon
which depends the life of the cell and the entire organism
Mizaj (Temperament) and Khawas (Properties) of
As the properties of a particular ‘unsur (element) is based on
its surat-nau’iyah (specific form), so the properties of a
compound also depends upon its surat-nau’iyah. Thus, the
The minute change in the surat-nau’iyah of a compound alters its
properties altogether. Ibn Sina describes this surat-nau’iyah as
under: “surat-nau’iyah is a thing which develops after mizaj
(imtizaj-chemical combination). This is when ‘anasir
(elemems) combine together and after their combination, a
thing (compound) is formed having the ability of becoming a
nau’ (species); and attaining a new and additional suratnau’iyah from among the ‘anasir (elements) which come into
combination [25]
This surat-nau’iyah (specific form) is not the name of kayfiyat
awaliyah (primary qualities), nor it is the name of that mizaj
(equlibrium), which develops after combination of ‘anasir
(elements), but it is kamal (completeness) which is achieved
by unsur, according to its ability, after mizaj. This surat, which
is developed in a compound after mizaj (imtizaj), often its
kamal is that it gets acted upon by others (infi’al min alghayr), and often its kamal is that it acts upon others (fi’l fi’lghayr)[26]
Compounds in the Human Body Formed After Imtizaj Al-
‘Anasir and Their Classification
When the atoms of ‘anasir-al-insaniyah (human elements)
combine together, monomers are formed; when the monomers
combine with micro-molecules for the formation of biological
macromolecules, which participate in the
formation of akhlat (humours) [15]
Furthermore, when these macro-molecules combine together,
organelles of the cell are formed, which combine to constitute
the cells, the structural and functional unit of a’za’ mufradah
combine together a’za’ murakkabah or a’za’ aliyah (organs)
are formed, and a’za’ murakkabah constitutes the whole body.
Ibn Sina has pointed out this very fact:
“Organs are those bodies which are formed after primary
combinations of akhlat mahmudah (good humor) as akhlat
are those bodies which are formed after primary combination
of arkan.” [25]
Therefore, arkan (elements) are the remote principles
(‘awamil ba’idah) for the human body. They are the
proximate principles for our akhlat (humours), which is a
mixture of various compounds which are formed from the
primary combinations of arkan. In this way, the proximate
principles of the body are those compounds which constitute
akhlat. In other words, the proximate principles of our body
are akhlat. Thus, from ‘anasir to complete human body, various
stages are seen: ‘Anasir-various compounds (constituents of
akhlat)-a’za’ mufradah-a’za’ murakkabah-human body [26]
Classification of Mizaj(temperament)
According to Ala-al-Din Qarshi (Ibn Nafis), there are nine
kinds of mizaj (temperaments). One is mu’tadil (equablenormal) and eight kinds are ghayr mu’tadil (inequable or
Mizaj Mu’tadil (equable or normal temperament)
Mizaj mu’tadil is of two kinds:
 Mu’tadil haqiqi (real equitable or equivalent)
 Mu’tadil Tibbi (Tibbi equable or normal) [26]
Mu’tadil Haqiqi
This mizaj is one wherein the contrary qualities and quantity
of all the participating elements in a compound are equal.
This is, however, nonexistent in the external world. Therefore,
Tibb has nothing to do with this temperament [15]
Mu’tadil Tibbi
This mizaj is one wherein the contrary qualities and quantity
of participating ‘anasir (elements) in a compound are not
equal but are just and perfectly balanced (homeosatic)
according to the required properties and functions of that
compound. Therefore, Ibn Nafis says, the word mu’tadil is
not the derivative of word ta’adul but it comes from the root
‘adl fi’l-qismat, which stands for justice in normal
distribution. Hence, we are concerned here with mu’ tadil
Tibbi (Tibbi normal) [26]
Mizaj Ashraf (Noblest Temperament)
It has now been established that the mizaj
(temperament) of each and every species is normal and most
appropriate with respect to the required functions of that
species. But if all the species of animals are compared with
With respect to their required functions, it will be found that the
functions required from a man are the noblest than those of
the required functions of other species. Therefore, the
inference could easily be drawn that the temperament of
A human being is the ashraf (noblest) of all the species of animals.
Each of them is, however, normal in mizaj (temperament)
with respect to his own required functions. It is why the man
is called the Ashraf al Makhluqat (noblest of all creatures). And
it is why Ibn Sina says, “In the case of man, He has bestowed
upon him the most befitting mizaj (temperament) possible of
all in the world, as well as the quwa (faculties) corresponding
to all the active and passive states of man.
Nafis argues that the human mizaj (temperament) is ashraf
owing to the fact that his temperament is related to nafs
natiqah (speaking psyche), which is the noblest and complete
of all psyches. The man is called al-haywan al-natiq [30]
Basis of the Bodily Temperament
When different ‘anasir al-insaniyah (human elements)
undergo different types of imtizaj (chemical combinations)
various compounds of specific surat nau’iyah (molecular
structures) and mizaj are produced. These compounds
constitute the akhlat al-badan (fluids of the body-humours);
when these compounds combine together, biological
molecules are developed. And combination of these
biochemical molecules gives birth to organelles and kahliyat
(cells)-the structural and functional units of a’za’ mufradah
(tissues). Thus, our body is an aggregate of about 100 trillion
cells organized into different functional structures (tissues and
organs). These cells, the intercellular spaces, and body cavities
and various vessels and channels passing through the tissues
and organs are filled with fluids known as akhlat (humours).
These fluids, according to their locations, have been divided by
Abu Sahl Masihi, the teacher of Ibn Sina, into three categories
[15, 22]
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 Rutubat Ustaqussiyah, which is located in the cells,
intracellular fluid. Also known as rutubat gharizyah or
rutubat jauharyah by the Tibbi physicians.
 Rutubat tajawif-the intercellular, transcellular or tissue
 Rutubat’urup-the vascular fluid, i.e. blood, etc.
Thus, rutubat ustaqussiyah makes the internal environment of
the cells, and the internal environment (milieu interieur) of the
entire body is determined by rutubat tajawif (tissue fluid) as
well as rutubat ‘uruq.
The above akhlat or rutubat (fluids), which make the internal
environment of the cells as well as of the whole body
composed of water, electrolytes, proteins, fats, carbohydrates,
vitamins and gases (proximate principles of the body). These
constituents of akhlat determine the kayfiyat (quality composition) of various akhlat. Thus, different kinds of akhlat
possess specific qualities and quantities. This state of equilibrium
or homeostasis is known as mizaj of akhlat (humours) [15]
There is specific mizaj (homeostasis) of akhlat for cells of
each tissue of the body and therefore the mizaj of one tissue is
different from that of another. It is why one tissue differs from another.
the other. Likewise, ratubat tajawif of the body also possesses a
specific and fixed state of mizaj (homeostasis), upon which is
based on the mizaj of the entire body. This could be understood
from the fact that rutubat tajawif circulates through the entire
body with the help of blood and other vessels. Therefore, all
cells of the body are bathed into rutubat tajawif and
necessarily remain in the same environment and under the same conditions.
In other words, the internal environment of the body is always
remains the same. There is exchange of materials between
rutubat ustaqussiyah and rutubat tajawif through the cell
membrane but the kammiyat (quantity) and kayfiyat (quality)
of the fluid in the cells fluctuates within certain and specific
limits. This fluctuation does not exceed the normal limits of
the specific mizaj (homeostasis) of the particular cell and to
the abnormal level or to the extent of altering the mizaj
(homeostatic condition) of the cell. However, if due to any
cause the quality and quantity of humor within the cells
altered, the equilibrium is disturbed and thereby the mizaj of
particular cell or tissue is deranged. This condition is known
as sua’l-mizaj [1]
If this sua’l-mizaj of a particular cell or tissue is detected in its
initial stage, particularly when changes in the biological
molecules are taking place and before the symptoms of the
disease manifests or the sua’l-mizaj becomes advanced to
the extent of causing the death of the cells or affecting the
vital organs and systems, the treatment is much more easier
Rutubat tajawif and rutubat uruq, which make the internal
environment of the whole body have also a fixed mizaj
(homeostasis) fluctuating within certain maximum and
minimum limits. This intermixture, or mizaj or homeostasis in
the internal environment of the body is specific for each
species of animal and differs from one species to another. And
there is specific range for each species in which mizaj of each
and every individual of the species is confined. Also, it is
specific for each member of a particular species, which ranges
within certain maximum and minimum limits. Owing to this
the mizaj (temperament) of one person differs from that of
Mizaj Al-Ajnas
According to Tibb-e-Unani, the mizaj of women is cold in
comparison to men. The reason is that the Basal metaphor
The rate in women is lower than that in men and with the result,
production of heat in terms of calories is less than that of men. It is
why women are said to be barred in comparison to men [15]
So far, the other quality of rutubat, as far as the Tibbi
physicians have maintained that the temperament of women is
ratab. This apparently does not seem correct because the
The quantity of ratubat in women is 10% less than in men. The
persons who are fatty are less moist and those who are
contains more fat, contains less water; and since women
contain more fat than men; therefore, they contain less water.
Thus, on this criterion, the temperament of women cannot be
maintained as moist. But this fact should also be taken into
account that the physicians have included the fat also into
ratubat and since the fat produces softness and smoothness in
the body and that women contains more fat, hence they are
Mizaj Al-Sinat
As diverse geographical conditions such as regions, countries,
cities and different inhabitants are exerting their effects on the
temperament of man, the physicians maintain that different
Occupations also influence the human temperament. Thus,
such occupations in which one is encountered with heat and
dryness, such as a glass factory, metal factory, etc.
temperament is likely to become hot and dry. On the contrary,
those who are continuously exposed to the cold and moisture
such as Dhobi, are prone to becoming cold and moist [15]
Mizaj Ghair Moatadil
We know that mizaj of cells and tissue depends upon the
equilibrium in the specific quantity and quality of ratuba
Ustuqsuia or ratubat ghareezia of the cells, or in the other
In other words, it depends upon the specific homeostasis within the
internal environment of the cells. Likewise, Mizaj
(Temparament) of the entire body is based on equilibrium in
the specific quality and quantity of Ratubat-e-Tajaweef and
Ratubate urooq, or, in other words, it depends upon the
specific equilibrium in the internal environment of the body.
Thus, any disturbance in the quantity and quality of Ratubat
Ustuqutsia (internal environment of the cells) or disturbance
in the homeostatic condition of the protoplasm of the cell
causes Su al Mizaj (Abnormal temperament) of the cells or
tissue locally. And any disturbance in the quality and quantity
of Ratubate Tajaweef or Ratubate Urooq or disturbance in the
homoestatic condition of the body, causes Sue mizaj of the
entire body. This is a general derangement in the temperament.
But from the above account, it should not be missed.
that local Sue Mizaj is always a localized phenomenon and
cannot cause the general to sue Mizaj, and vice versa. It could be very
well be understood from the effect that each functional
structure, under the guidance of Tabbiyat, provides its share in
the maintenance of Motadil Mizaj in the internal environment
the cells, tissue, and entire body. Thus, each cell benefits from
E’tadal al Mizaj of the internal environment of the body and
in terms each contributing its share towards maintenance of
this Mizaj. Thus, there is a harmonious relationship between the
mizaj of the cells and Mizaj of the entire body, which is
controlled by the Tabbiyat (Physis). The effect of the local
Sue Mizaj’s general temperament depends on the
types of cells or the tissue involved; thus, if the cells or tissues
belong to an Uzu raees (vital organ), the extent of the general
Mizaj being affected is much more marked. This further
affects other cells and tissues and a vicious circle is
established when one or more functional system are affected
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They lose their ability to function. This affects all the cells of
the body. Extreme dysfunction of any integrated system
leading to gross disturbance in the normal Mizaj leads to
death, and moderate derangement leads to sickness example
when any Sue Mizaj occurs in the endocrine events, it affects
in the Mizaj of entire body and nearly all the cells of the body
are affected and the disease thus developed often leads to
death [15, 30]
The physical state, heat, and water are three criteria that can
describe the conditions of a biological entity—organs,
structures, biochemical compounds, liquids, and such. The
combinations of the three physical characteristics of the four
elements give rise to temperaments. Abnormal
temperament, called dystemperament, occurs when the body
or its organs deviate in one or two of the temperamental
qualities. Here is where the Unani physician has to determine
the qualitative deviation (i.e., which quality is affected, the
heat, or the hydration), and the amount of deviation (the quantity).
The physician’s assessment of deviation will determine the
types of medication to use and their potency.
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Concordance between mizaj and diseases in adult patients
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2. Alam MA, Quamri MA, Siddiqui MA, Hai U, and Sofi G.
Nephroprotective Effects and Unani Medicine: A Review.
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3. Masihi AS. Kitab Al-Miya. Central Council for Research
in Unani Medicine, New Delhi. Ministry of Health &
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